Tatyana Deryugina (Twitter: @TDeryugina)

Main » Articles » Books

My favorite footnote

Posted 01 Feb 10 by Tatyana

From: Karl Marx’s Capital Volume One, Part III: The Production of Absolute Surplus-Value, CHAPTER TEN: THE WORKING-DAY

[66] l. c., p. xiii. The degree of culture of these "labour-powers”
  must naturally be such as appears in the following dialogues with one
  of the commissioners: Jeremiah Haynes, age 12 — "Four times four is 8;
  4 fours are 16. A king is him that has all the money and gold. We have
  a king (told it is a Queen), they call her the Princess Alexandra.
  Told that she married the Queen’s son. The Queen’s son is the Princess
  Alexandra. A Princess is a man.” William Turner, age 12 — "Don’t live
  in England. Think it is a country, but didn’t know before.” John
  Morris, age 14 — "Have heard say that God made the world, and that all
  the people was drownded but one, heard say that one was a little
  bird.” William Smith age 15 — "God made man, man made woman.” Edward
  Taylor, age 15 — "Do not know of London.” Henry Matthewman, age 17 —
  "Had been to chapel, but missed a good many times lately. One name
  that they preached about was Jesus Christ, but I cannot say any
  others, and I cannot tell anything about him. He was not killed, but
  died like other people. He was not the same as other people in some
  ways, because he was religious in some ways and others isn’t.” (l. c.,
  p. xv.) "The devil is a good person. I don’t know where he lives.”
  "Christ was a wicked man.” "This girl spelt God as dog, and did not
  know the name of the queen.” ("Ch. Employment Comm. V. Report, 1866 "
  p. 55, n. 278.) The same system obtains in the glass and paper works
  as in the metallurgical, already cited. In the paper factories, where
  the paper is made by machinery, night-work is the rule for all
  processes, except rag-sorting. In some cases night-work, by relays, is
  carried on incessantly through the whole week, usually from Sunday
  night until midnight of the following Saturday. Those who are on
  day-work work 5 days of 12, and 1 day of 18 hours; those on night-work
  5 nights of 12, and I of 6 hours in each week. In other cases each set
  works 24 hours consecutively on alternate days, one set working 6
  hours on Monday, and 18 on Saturday to make up the 24 hours. In other
  cases an intermediate system prevails, by which all employed on the
  paper-making machinery work 15 or 16 hours every day in the week. This
  system, says Commissioner Lord, "seems to combine all the evils of
  both the 12 hours’ and the 24 hours’ relays.” Children under 13, young
  persons under 18, and women, work under this night system. Sometimes
  under the 12 hours’ system they are obliged, on account of the
  non-appearance of those that ought to relieve them, to work a double
  turn of 24 hours. The evidence proves that boys and girls very often
  work overtime, which, not unfrequently, extends to 24 or even 36 hours
  of uninterrupted toil. In the continuous and unvarying process of
  glazing are found girls of 12 who work the whole month 14 hours a day,
  "without any regular relief or cessation beyond 2 or, at most, 3
  breaks of half an hour each for meals.” In some mills, where regular
  night-work has been entirely given up, over-work goes on to a terrible
  extent, "and that often in the dirtiest, and in the hottest, and in
  the most monotonous of the various processes.” ("Ch. Employment Comm.
  Report IV., 1865,” p. xxxviii, and xxxix.)


Views : 1257
Name *:
Email:
Code *: